Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on Ender

Enders GAME Ender†¦. As many young children are is infatuated with games. Games that take him beyond there programming and almost beyond his mental capabilities. Enders life is almost devoted to the games. They seem to be his only friends at times, and his worst enemies at others they train him to be strategic and ruthless and perform at his top military level. Ender throughout the book has very many encounters with games, for instance towards the beginning of the book when he ruthlessly kills the giant by gouging out its eyes, or later on in the book when he kills the snake bye smashing it into the ground†¦ Of course after he commits these acts even though they are in games he always punishes himself by saying that he is not like peter that he is not a blood thirsty child. The games in a way torment him to insanity. In parts through the book he is focusing almost his entire life on beating 1 simple little game. He does this because he knows he is the best and will not be defeated by a computer. Something created by a human. Most likely less intelligent than he is. The human race human race is dependent on a boy, of 6 years who plays computer games as if they are reality†¦. But really is this what the world needs? At the end of the book when Ender beats the â€Å"computer† And finds out that it was really a bugger planet do you honestly believe that someone of the heart of Ender wiggen would have killed off almost an entire race? In the games he can be ruthless.. But still consider himself a bad person. But in life if he were to do something of that magnitude nothing that anyone could say we be any different to him he would always be a bad person in his mind. Often times the games play him. He cannot help but to play the game it is like he is transformed into the game as if it is his real life and he cannot escape it. Enders life is a game†¦ As you know games are more than just created by man. Everywhere around you, you can find... Free Essays on Ender Free Essays on Ender Enders GAME Ender†¦. As many young children are is infatuated with games. Games that take him beyond there programming and almost beyond his mental capabilities. Enders life is almost devoted to the games. They seem to be his only friends at times, and his worst enemies at others they train him to be strategic and ruthless and perform at his top military level. Ender throughout the book has very many encounters with games, for instance towards the beginning of the book when he ruthlessly kills the giant by gouging out its eyes, or later on in the book when he kills the snake bye smashing it into the ground†¦ Of course after he commits these acts even though they are in games he always punishes himself by saying that he is not like peter that he is not a blood thirsty child. The games in a way torment him to insanity. In parts through the book he is focusing almost his entire life on beating 1 simple little game. He does this because he knows he is the best and will not be defeated by a computer. Something created by a human. Most likely less intelligent than he is. The human race human race is dependent on a boy, of 6 years who plays computer games as if they are reality†¦. But really is this what the world needs? At the end of the book when Ender beats the â€Å"computer† And finds out that it was really a bugger planet do you honestly believe that someone of the heart of Ender wiggen would have killed off almost an entire race? In the games he can be ruthless.. But still consider himself a bad person. But in life if he were to do something of that magnitude nothing that anyone could say we be any different to him he would always be a bad person in his mind. Often times the games play him. He cannot help but to play the game it is like he is transformed into the game as if it is his real life and he cannot escape it. Enders life is a game†¦ As you know games are more than just created by man. Everywhere around you, you can find...

Friday, February 28, 2020

THE FOUR RIGHTEOUS CALIPHS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

THE FOUR RIGHTEOUS CALIPHS - Assignment Example The second caliph, Umar, continued the expansion of the Muslim state. He not only defeated the Persians but also secured Egypt from the Byzantines. Umars reign is one of the reasons the Muslim empire was so successful: he allowed people to retain their own religious beliefs. This greatly strengthened Islamic control as the increased freedom prompted not only happy citizens but also converts. The caliphates position in religious affairs was strengthened when the third caliph, Uthman b. Affan, was selected to lead the Ottoman empire. He created a governmentally-sanctioned copy of the Quran. This action was incredibly beneficial to both political and religious organization, as it not only united the Islamic empire under one, clear version of the holy scripture, but it also showed the caliphate as capable and spiritually viable. Last of the Four Righteous Caliphs Ali b. Abi Talib faced some of the most difficult challenges. Because he failed to punish Uthmans assassins in a timely manner, many of his former followers deserted him, and he was faced with civil war. He lost most control to Uthmans kinsman, Muawiya. Ultimately, Uthman and Umar are the two more successful caliphs, as they expanded the empire dramatically, gaining new converts and willing citizens. On the other hand, Abu Bakr and Ali served necessary purposes: they dealt with their respective rebellions in a poised manner that ensured the continuation of Islamic rule. Without each, the Ottomans would have undoubtedly

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

GDP as a measure of welfare Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

GDP as a measure of welfare - Research Paper Example This measures happiness directly by interviewing people about how they feel about their health, wealth, and education and then attaching weights to the respective responses.One good thing about this measure is that it measures the well-being by incorporating material and spiritual development side by side as explained by sustainable development, cultural values, conservation, and good governance. Country  SWL IndexKuwait  240Uruguay  176South Sudan  120*Burkina Faso  156.67Zimbabwe  160Hungary  190Note: South Sudan SWL Index of 120 is for the greater Sudan before it seceded.(b)  Kuwait versus UruguayWhere it compares poorly against Uruguay: Adult Literacy and Life Expectancy at Birth.Here it fares better against Uruguay: Real GDP per capita and Internet user population percentage.(c)  GDP tends to determine most of the variables. The plot below is a display of the trend of the percentage each value contributes over time or ordered categories. GDP is not a good measu re because it does not take into account the specific distribution of the incomes to the hands of individuals. They could only be going to few hands hence it does not measure the general welfare of the people.One good thing about this measure is that it measures the well-being by incorporating material and spiritual development side by side as explained by sustainable development, cultural values, conservation, and good governance. Country  SWL IndexKuwait  240Uruguay  176South Sudan  120*Uruguay  176South Sudan  120*

Friday, January 31, 2020

Political philosophy Essay Example for Free

Political philosophy Essay The concept of social contract theory is that in the beginning man lived in the state of nature. They had no government and there was no law to regulate them. There were hardships and oppression on the sections of the society. To overcome from these hardships they entered into two agreements which are:- 1. ?Pactum Unionis? ; and 2. ?Pactum Subjectionis?. By the first pact of unionis, people sought protection of their lives and property. As, a result of it a society was formed where people undertook to respect each other and live in peace and harmony. By the second pact of subjectionis, people united together and pledged to obey an authority and surrendered the whole or part of their freedom and rights to an authority. The authority guaranteed everyone protection of life, property and to a certain extent liberty. Thus, they must agree to establish society by collectively and reciprocally renouncing the rights they had against one another in the State of Nature and they must imbue some one person or assembly of persons with the authority and power to enforce the initial contract. In other words, to ensure their escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it. Thus, the authority or the government or the sovereign or the state came into being because of the two agreements. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Thomas Hobbes ? Thomas Hobbes theory of Social Contract appeared for the first time in Leviathan published in the year 1651 during the Civil War in Britain. Thomas Hobbes? legal theory is based on ? Social contract?. According to him, prior to Social Contract, man lived in the State of Nature. Man? s life in the State of NATURE was one of fear and selfishness. Man lived in chaotic condition of constant fear. Life in the State of Nature was ? solitary? , ? poor? , ? nasty? , ? brutish? , and ? short?. ? Man has a natural desire for security and order. In order to secure self- protection and self-preservation, and to avoid misery and pain, man entered Page 2 of 7 into a contract. This idea of self-preservation and self-protection are inherent in man? s nature and in order to achieve this, they voluntarily surrendered all their rights and freedoms to some authority by this contract who must command obedience. As a result of this contract, the mightiest authority is to protect and preserve their lives and property. This led to the emergence of the institution of the ? ruler? or ? monarch? , who shall be the absolute head. Subjects had no rights against the absolute authority or the sovereign and he is to be obeyed in all situations however bad or unworthy he might be. However, Hobbes placed moral obligations on the sovereign who shall be bound by natural law. ? Hence, it can be deduced that, Hobbes was the supporter of absolutism. In the opinion of Hobbes, ? law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign and the Government without sword are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all?. He therefore, reiterated that civil law is the real law because it is commanded and enforced by the sovereign. Thus, he upheld the principle of ? Might is always Right?. ? Hobbes thus infers from his mechanistic theory of human nature that humans are necessarily and exclusively self-interested. All men pursue only what they perceive to be in their own individually considered best interests. They respond mechanistically by being drawn to that which they desire and repelled by that to which they are averse. In addition to being exclusively self-interested, Hobbes also argues that human beings are reasonable. They have in them the rational capacity to pursue their desires as efficiently and maximally as possible. From these premises of human nature, Hobbes goes on to construct a provocative and compelling argument for which they ought to be willing to submit themselves to political authority. He did this by imagining persons in a situation prior to the establishment of society, the State of Nature. ? Hobbes impels subjects to surrender all their rights and vest all liberties in the sovereign for preservation of peace, life and prosperity of the subjects. It is in this way the natural law became a moral guide or directive to the sovereign for preservation of the natural rights of the subjects. For Hobbes all law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign. All real law is civil law, the law commanded and Page 3 of 7 enforced by the sovereign and are brought into the world for nothing else but to limit the natural liberty of particular men, in such a manner, as they might not hurt but to assist one another and join together against a common enemy. He advocated for an established order. Hence, Individualism, materialism, utilitarianism and absolutions are inter-woven in the theory of Hobbes. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by John Locke ? John Locke theory of Social Contract is different than that of Hobbes. According to him, man lived in the State of Nature, but his concept of the State of Nature is different as contemplated by Hobbesian theory. Locke? s view about the state of nature is not as miserable as that of Hobbes. It was reasonably good and enjoyable, but the property was not secure. He considered State of Nature as a ? Golden Age?. It was a state of ? peace, goodwill, mutual assistance, and preservation?. In that state of nature, men had all the rights which nature could give them. Locke justifies this by saying that in the State of Nature, the natural condition of mankind was a state of perfect and complete liberty to conduct one? s life as one best sees fit. It was free from the interference of others. In that state of nature, all were equal and independent. This does not mean, however, that it was a state of license. It was one not free to do anything at all one pleases, or even anything that one judges to be in one? s interest. The State of Nature, although a state wherein there was no civil authority or government to punish people for transgressions against laws, was not a state without morality. The State of Nature was pre-political, but it was not pre- moral. Persons are assumed to be equal to one another in such a state, and therefore equally capable of discovering and being bound by the Law of Nature. So, the State   Nature was a ? state of liberty? , where persons are free to pursue their own interests and plans, free from interference and, because of the Law of Nature and the restrictions that it imposes upon persons, it is relatively peaceful. ? Property plays an essential role in Locke? s argument for civil government and the contract that establishes it. According to Locke, private property is created when a person mixes his labour with the raw materials of nature. Given the implications of the Law of Nature, there are limits as to how much property one can own: one is not Page 4 of 7allowed to take so more from nature than oneself can use, thereby leaving others without enough for themselves, because nature is given to all of mankind for its common subsistence. One cannot take more than his own fair share. Property is the linchpin of Locke? s argument for the social contract and civil government because it is the protection of their property, including their property in their own bodies, that men seek when they decide to abandon the State of Nature. ? John Locke considered property in the State of Nature as insecure because of three conditions; they are:- 1. Absence of established law; 2. Absence of impartial Judge; and 3. Absence of natural power to execute natural laws. ? Thus, man in the State of Nature felt need to protect their property and for the purpose of protection of their property, men entered into the ? Social Contract?. Under the contract, man did not surrender all their rights to one single individual, but they surrendered only the right to preserve / maintain order and enforce the law of nature. The individual retained with them the other rights, i. e. , right to life, liberty and estate because these rights were considered natural and inalienable rights of men.? Having created a political society and government through their consent, men then gained three things which they lacked in the State of Nature: laws, judges to adjudicate laws, and the executive power necessary to enforce these laws. Each man therefore gives over the power to protect himself and punish transgressors of the Law of Nature to the government that he has created through the compact. ? According to Locke, the purpose of the Government and law is to uphold and protect the natural rights of men. So long as the Government fulfils this purpose, the laws given by it are valid and binding but, when it ceases to fulfil it, then the laws would have no validity and the Government can be thrown out of power. In Lockes view, unlimited sovereignty is contrary to natural law. ? Hence, John Locke advocated the principle of -? a state of liberty; not of license?. Locke advocated a state for the general good of people. He pleaded for a constitutionally limited government. Page 5 of 7 ? Locke, in fact made life, liberty and property, his three cardinal rights, which greatly dominated and influenced the Declaration of American Independence, 1776. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau ? Jean Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher who gave a new interpretation to the theory of Social Contract in his work The Social Contract and Emile. According to him, social contract is not a historical fact but a hypothetical construction of reason. Prior to the Social Contract, the life in the State of Nature was happy and there was equality among men. As time passed, however, humanity faced certain changes. As the overall population increased, the means by which people could satisfy their needs had to change. People slowly began to live together in small families, and then in small communities. Divisions of labour were introduced, both within and between families, and discoveries and inventions made life easier, giving rise to leisure time. Such leisure time inevitably led people to make comparisons between themselves and others, resulting in public values, leading to shame and envy, pride and contempt. Most importantly however, according to Rousseau, was the invention of private property, which constituted the pivotal moment in humanity? s evolution out of a simple, pure state into one, characterized by greed, competition, vanity, inequality, and vice. For Rousseau the invention of property constitutes humanity? s ? fall from grace? out of the State of Nature. For this purpose, they surrendered their rights not to a single individual but to the community as a whole which Rousseau termed as ? general will?. ? According to Rousseau, the original ? freedom, happiness, equality and liberty? which existed in primitive societies prior to the social contract was lost in the modern civilisation. Through Social Contract, a new form of social organisation- the state was formed to assure and guarantee rights, liberties freedom and equality. The essence of the Rousseau? s theory of General Will is that State and Law were the product of General Will of the people. State and the Laws are made by it and if the government and laws do not conform to ? general will? , they would be discarded. While the individual parts with his natural rights, in return he gets civil liberties such as freedom of speech, equality, assembly, etc. Page 6 of 7 ? The ? General Will? , therefore, for all purposes, was the will of majority citizens to which blind obedience was to be given. The majority was accepted on the belief that majority view is right than minority view. Each individual is not subject to any other individual but to the ? general will? and to obey this is to obey himself. His sovereignty is infallible, indivisible, unrepresentable and illimitable. ? Thus, Rousseau favoured peoples sovereignty. His natural law theory is confined to the freedom and liberty of the individual. For him, State, law, sovereignty, general will, etc. are interchangeable terms. Rousseau? s theory inspired French and American revolutions and given impetus to nationalism. He based his theory of social contract on the principle of ? Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains?. COMPARISION OF THE THEORY OF SOCIAL CONTRACT OF THOMAS HOBBES, JOHN LOCKE AND JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU 1. Hobbes asserts that without subjection to a common power of their rights and freedoms, men are necessarily at war. Locke and Rousseau, on the contrary, set forth the view that the state exists to preserve and protect the natural rights of its citizens. When governments fail in that task, citizens have the right and sometimes the duty to withdraw their support and even to rebel. 2. Hobbes view was that whatever the state does is just. All of society is a direct creation of the state, and a reflection of the will of the ruler. According to Locke, the only important role of the state is to ensure that justice is seen to be done. While Rousseau view is that the State must in all circumstance ensure freedom and liberty of individuals. 3. Hobbes theory of Social Contract supports absolute sovereign without giving any value to individuals, while Locke and Rousseau supports individual than the state or the government. 4. To Hobbes, the sovereign and the government are identical but Rousseau makes a distinction between the two. He rules out a representative form of government. But, Locke does not make any such distinction. Page 7 of 7 5. Rousseau? s view of sovereignty was a compromise between the constitutionalism of Locke and absolutism of Hobbes. CRITICAL APPREHENTION 1. Rousseau propounded that state, law and the government are interchangeable, but this in present senerio is different. Even though government can be overthrown but not the state. A state exists even there is no government. 2. Hobbes concept of absolutism is totally a vague concept in present scenario. Democracy is the need and examples may be taken from Burma and other nations. 3. According to Hobbes, the sovereign should have absolute authority. This is against the rule of law because absolute power in one authority brings arbitrariness. 4. Locke concept of State of nature is vague as any conflict with regard to property always leads to havoc in any society. Hence, there cannot be a society in peace if they have been conflict with regard to property. 5. Locke concept of laissez-faire is not of welfare oriented. Now in present scenario, every state undertake steps to form a welfare state.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

It’s Time to Organize an International Environmental Protection Agency :: Environment Environmental Pollution Preservation

It’s Time to Organize an International Environmental Protection Agency After more than two centuries of destroying the Earth, we have finally come to the point where doing anymore harm will destroy not only our planet but also ourselves. The year is 2100. With average worldwide temperatures rising by six degrees Fahrenheit (EPA qtd Washington Post 1) numerous environmental problems have resulted. With the temperature rise Arctic and Antarctic ice caps began to melt, the resulting sea level rise wiped out numerous coastal cities. Along with the sea level rise came the destruction of ocean habitats and changing currents resulted in the death of numerous species of fish and sea life (Last 6). Temperature increase caused many diseases that only appear in warm parts of the world to spread across the Earth (EPA 5). And temperature rise wasn’t the only problem to plague the population. Over the past century the increase of car and air pollution helped to enlarge the size of the ozone layer. The increased amount of radiation coming in to the Earth made the number of cancer related deaths around the world go up 25 percent (Greenpeace 4). Not only did cancer rates increase due to radiation; immune system deficiencies due to radiation (McMichael 35) caused disease rates to increase. Because of emission increases in the 20th century the amount of carbon dioxide in the air doubled since the beginning of the industrial age (Quayle 1). As many third world countries continued to develop, they also continued to raise their air pollution rates (CO2 rates increased by more than 300%, rates were especially high in China and developing countries in Africa and Latin America (Ciba 62)). Combined with the already existent pollution, the number of reported lung cancer and other air pollution related health problems rise substantially. Although over the past one hundred and fifty years more than a few environmental laws were past by individual countries to try and stop large companies from dumping their waste in unsafe and illegal ways (and places), little worked. This large amount of industrial waste (air, land, and water based) is one of the reasons the world is in such dire environmental straits. In the beginning of the industrial age many countries around the world did nothing to try and stop companies from pumping waste into the world. As time went on it became apparent that steps needed to be taken to stifle pollution.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

The Evolution of Philippine Literature

Though relatively young compared to other world literatures, Philippine literature has come a long way in evolving from the early forms of folklore literature to the contemporary literature we know today. The changing times and the cultural influences brought about by both the foreign and local people have shaped the fate of Philippine literature. On the earliest times before the Spanish colonization, myths, legends, and tales were the forms of literature at hand. These reflected the indigenous culture and tradition of pre-Spanish Philippines.Stories were orally shared and passed down room one generation to the next. A bit before Spaniards came, the early natives had also developed their own writing system called the Alabama and the earliest writings in Philippine literature were written in that manner on bamboo, leaves, stones, and other indigenous materials. These myths usually impart of the origin of man and the world, and mostly had a transcending spiritual purpose. Balkans or th e priestesses were in charge of remembering and preserving the folklore which they preached to the people, especially to the future generations.An example of well preserved myth is the lawful ale of Began and Gauguin that talks about the marriage of a goddess with a man and the death of their son which resulted in the creation of the world's many things. Tales were in local vernacular forms and showed the diversity ad richness of culture by each region. On the advent of Spanish colonization, the earlier forms of literature were trashed and abandoned for the Spaniards wanted to convert the natives to Christianity and the only way to do this was to convince the natives into believing that these were evil and wicked.That explains why the term â€Å"yaw† meaner devil, but in fact, Yaw was a airier Babylon from Bolo. Folklore was forgotten and natives were slowly but surely became Hispanicize throughout the 300 years of colonization. Prayers, chants, and other religious acts were taught to the natives. Religion was a major topic in the Spanish era. Elite scholars were taught to read and write in Spanish and religion was the main subject matter. Since only the high class or the selected few had the privilege of education, this resulted in a few bright minds to explore the literature given by the Spaniards, the rest were only taught prayers.These fortunate people were taught to read and write n Spanish and were sent overseas. This paved way for them to discover the diverse literature of the world. This gave them an utterly different perspective of literature and other matters. These scholars were inspired by the foreign revolutionary ideas and sooner than later, sparked the will to also change the system of their native land. These foreign ideas were adopted by Filipino writers like Jose Racial, Grecian Lopez Jean, Marcelo H. Del Pillar and Pedro Pattern who contributed to important Spanish literary work in the Philippines by the way of various historical docu ments.Studying in Europe, Jose Racial was the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines. He wrote two books: the Nil Me Tanager and the El Filibusterer's, writings and formed the ASK for revolution. It is evident in Benefaction's poem Nag Hulling Habit Eng Filipinos (The final Cry of Filipinos) that he was on the verge of creating a revolution and that shows that on the dwindling years of Spanish rule, literature revolved around the idea of revolution and nationalism. It is true that the style and way of writing is very much affected by the need to write down the events that are unfolding.A nationalistic era results in a nationalistic literary works. At the dawn of American colonialism?or as they called it â€Å"benevolent assimilation†, the American tactic was to not enslave us but to â€Å"befriend† us. They willingly taught the Filipinos to read and write in English, targeting the youth. Through these efforts, Philippine English literature bloomed. At th e start, many Filipino writers still wrote in Spanish but gradually, as the years went by, more and more wrote in English. Since you have to learn to stand before you learn to walk, it took them a little while before Filipino writers could write literary works in English.When the Second World War exploded and the Japanese occupied the country, writers were forced to either go underground or write in Toga. Writers were enthused to write in English again when the war was over. This period produced some famous writers like like Carols Bulbous, Alexandra Roses, Francisco Recall, Nick Joaquin. Filipino writers excelled in the short stories in English. It was at this time that Filipinos felt at more ease with using English as their medium of language. They took the writing in English language and transformed it into an artistic expression.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

6 Good Reasons to Study English Grammar

If youre reading this page, its a safe bet that you know English grammar. That is, you know how to put words together in a sensible order and add the right endings. Whether or not youve ever opened a grammar book, you know how to produce combinations of sounds and letters that others can understand. After all, English was used for a thousand years before the first grammar books ever appeared. Knowing about grammar, says David Crystal in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (Cambridge University Press, 2003), means being able to talk about what it is we are able to do when we construct sentences  Ã¢â‚¬â€ to describe what the rules are, and what happens when they fail to apply. In the Cambridge Encyclopedia, Crystal spends several hundred pages examining all aspects of the English language, including its history and vocabulary, regional and social variations, and the differences between spoken and written English. Why You Should Study English Grammar Its the chapters on English grammar that are central to his book, just as grammar itself is central to any study of language. Crystal opens his chapter on Grammar Mythology with a list of six reasons to study grammar--reasons worth stopping to think about. Accepting the Challenge: Because Its There. People are constantly curious about the world in which they live, and wish to understand it and (as with mountains) master it. Grammar is no different from any other domain of knowledge in this respect.Being Human: But more than mountains, language is involved with almost everything we do as human beings. We cannot live without language. To understand the linguistic dimension of our existence would be no mean achievement. And grammar is the fundamental organizing principle of language.Exploring Our Creative Ability: Our grammatical ability is extraordinary. It is probably the most creative ability we have. There is no limit to what we can say or write, yet all of this potential is controlled by a finite number of rules. How is this done?Solving Problems: Nonetheless, our language can let us down. We encounter ambiguity, and unintelligible speech or writing. To deal with these problems, we need to put grammar under the microscope and work ou t what went wrong. This is especially critical when children are learning to emulate the standards used by educated adult members of their community.Learning Other Languages: Learning about English grammar provides a basis for learning other languages. Much of the apparatus we need to study English turns out to be of general usefulness. Other languages have clauses, tenses, and adjectives too. And the differences they display will be all the clearer if we have first grasped what is unique to our mother tongue.Increasing Our Awareness: After studying grammar, we should be more alert to the strength, flexibility, and variety of our language, and thus be in a better position to use it and to evaluate others use of it. Whether our own usage, in fact, improves, as a result, is less predictable. Our awareness must improve, but turning that awareness into better practice--by speaking and writing more effectively--requires an additional set of skills. Even after a course on car mechanics, w e can still drive carelessly. Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein said, Like everything metaphysical the harmony between thought and reality is to be found in the grammar of the language. If that sounds a bit too lofty, we might return to the simpler words of William Langland in his 14th-century poem The Vision of Piers Plowman: Grammar, the ground of all.